Subspecies & Varieties Crib:

Aethusa cynapium agrestis longest pedicels about as long as bracteoles, to 20cm rare alien, arable     
Aethusa cynapium cynapium longest pedicels about half as long as bracteoles, to 1m common, arable and gardens    
Anagalis arvensis arvensis petal marginal hair cells 2 celled - red, pink or blue PLEASE RECORD COLOUR r-common, p-and b-rare.    
Anagalis arvensis foemina petal marginal hair cells 3 celled, - blue rare alien    
Arctium minus minus Lesser Burdock petioles hollow, heads to 25mm diam., more or less sessile, heads longer than wide very common    
Arctium minus nemorosum Wood Burdock petioles hollow, heads to 40mm diam., more or less sessile, heads wider than long rare in Essex, largely woodland    
Arctium minus pubens Hairy Burdock petioles hollow, heads to 40mm diam. stalks 5-120mm, heads cottony (c.f. A. tomentosum Alien) frequency not known    
Arrhenatherum elateus bulbosum with basal onion-like corm rare arable weed    
Arrhenatherum elateus elateus no basal corm common    
Brassica rapa campestris lvs. clasping, green, fl. buds in apical bowl surrounded by open fls. 'Barge Cabbage' by rivers    
Brassica napus oleifera lvs. clasping, waxy blue-green, flower buds on top of dome of flowers cultivar - record as casual    
Bromus hordeaceus hordeaceus spikelets softly hairy but  pedicels short,  lemmas >8mm common    
Bromus hordeaceus longpedicellatus spikelets softly hairy but pedicels long (c.f. commutatus long pedicels but  glabrous) sometimes sown as crop    
Bromus hordeaceus thominei dwarf, (<12cm), lemmas <8mm coastal dunes and cliffs    
Carex divulsa divulsa grey green, fruits in summer and autumn, fl. stems floppy - 2 forms one with confluent spikelets common    
Carex divulsa leersii yellow green, fruits early - gone by June -lvs. 'go pop' when pulled away at ligule, fl. Shoots ascending on chalk and coastal shell    
Catapodium rigidum var. majus twice pinnale, secondary pinnae turned at right angle so forms bushy inflorescence occasional, mainly coastal    
Catapodium rigidum var. rigidum twice pinnate, secondary pinnae all in one flat plane common    
Centaurea nigra nigra phyllaries with round apical segment scattered    
Centaurea nigra nemoralis phyllaries with narrow triangular apical segment common    
Cornus sanguinea australis hairs on back of leaf appressed to surface commonly planted alien form    
Cornus sanguinea sanguinea many hairs on back of leaf sticking up above surface common native form    
Deschampsia cespitosa cespitosa wide lvs., spikelets >3.5mm, hair tuft at base of lemma reaching next common grassland    
Deschampsia cespitosa parviflora narrow lvs., spikelets <3.5mm, hair tuft base of lemma short common woodland    
Eleocharis palustris palustris spikelets 40-70 flowered, middle level glumes <3.5mm, nuts <1.5mm slightly less common    
Eleocharis palustris vulgare spikelets 20-40 flowered, middle level glumes >3.5mm, nuts >1.5mm commonest    
[N.B. all the southern Eleocharis species except uniglumis and palustris have 3 as opposed to 2 stigmas]      
Epilobium tetragonum tetragonum narrow waxy leaves tapering to sessile base and coarse teeth, only crisped hairs on stem commonest willowherb, arable waste g.  
Epilobium tetragonum lamyi leaves wider, shortly petiolate, not decurrent down stem uncommon, arable    
Epilobium tetragonum tournefortii flowers big, 8-13mm, petals 6-11mm.  new verge alien Cambs.    
Festuca ovina hirtula well drained usually acid, lvs hairy at base, lemmas hairy to 4.2mm, awn to 0.8mm very rare    
Festuca ovina ophioliticola well drained calcareous soils,, lemmas to 4.9mm, awns to 1.6mm very rare    
Festuca ovina ovina usually acidic soils,  lemmas scabrid, to 4.2mm, awns to 1.1mm , very rare    
Festuca rubra cummutata tufted - rhizomes 0 or very short native, under-recorded, often sown    
Festuca rubra juncea short rhizomes, short dense blue-green tufts,  maritime e.g. Colne Point by houses    
Festuca rubra litoralis short rhizomes, dense mats on salt marshes among Triglochin & Puccinellia maritima common on saltings    
Festuca rubra megastachys lvs of culms and often tillers flat, tall  (to 1m) large diffuse panicle sporadic plants road verges    
Festuca rubra rubra rhizomes well developed, leaves folded into awl-like form, culm lvs often flat common everywhere    
Ficaria verna chrysocephala  very large flowers and leaves garden escape (one record Easters)    
Ficaria verna fertilis very good achene set - no bulbils in axils of leaves late in season common open sites    
Ficaria verna ficariiformis good achene set plus bulbils late in season sporadic London area so far    
Ficaria verna verna very poor  achene set (1-2), bulbils in leaf axils late in season common shady areas    
Fumaria officinalis officinalis 20-45 flowers per raceme, lower petal pointed to apex, sepals >2.5mm long common arable, gardens    
Fumaria officinalis wirtgenii 5-20 flowers per raceme, lower petal  truncated at apex, sepals >2.5mm long commonest on light soils    
Galium palustre elongatum lvs >20mm long, flowers 3.0-4.5mm diam. , pedicels >4mm at flowering supposed to be commonest ???    
Galium palustre palustre lvs <20mm long, flowers 2.0 -3.5mm diam, pedicels <4mm at flowering ???? Need checking    
Hedera helix helix common climbing ivy common    
Hedera helix 'Hibernica' cultivar with large 3-pronged leaves, mainly ground cover  common escape    
Hordeum murinum leporinum outside two of the triple spikelets fertile and swollen rare    
Hordeum murinum murinum only the centre one of the triple spikelets fertile and swollen common    
Lactuca serriola integrifolia leaves entire, tongue-shaped common inland    
Lactuca serriola serriola leaves dissected largely coastal, and main road verges    
Lamiastrum galeobdolon montanum the native form (N.B. its not subsp. galeobdolon that only occurs in Lincs.) woodland    
Lamiastrum galeobdolon argenteum silver mottled leaves - common garden escape invading woods and waste ground    
Lapsana communis communis capitula 1.5 to 2cm diam. Ligules c.1.5x length of inner phyllaries common    
Lapsana communis intermedia capitula 1.5 to 2.5-3.0cm diam. (looks like a Hieracium), ligules c.2.5x inner phyllaries very rare alien    
Lotus corniculatus corniculatus stems solid native common    
Lotus corniculatus sativa stems hollow, but young calyx not reflexed like pedunculata which also has hollow stems alien planted in WF mixes, common    
Luzula multiflora congesta flower clusters in almost stalkless lobed head acid heathland, common    
Luzula multiflora multiflora flowers clusters on long, largely upright stalks acid heathland, common    
Montia fontana  amporitana seeds with >3 outer rows of pointed tubercles ??    
Montia fontana fontana seeds smooth and shiny ??    
Montia fontana chrondrosperma seeds with broad hemispherical tubercles all over ??    
Montia fontana variabilis seeds with 2-3 outer rows of pointed tubercles ??    
Papaver dubium white sap occassional, widespread, arable    
Papaver lequoqii yellow sap occassional, largely chalk arable     
Pastinaca sativa sativa terminal umbel larger than laterals, rays >8 unequal rays, upper stems deeply ridged common inland verges    
Pastinaca sativa urens terminal umbel no larger than laterals, its rays < 8 and + unequal, upper stems smoothish mainly coastal    
Pilosella aurantiaca aurantiaca  spreading by underground rhizomes garden escape in grassland    
Pilosella aurantiaca carpathicola spreading by green overground stolons garden escape in grassland    
Poterium sanguisorba balearicum robust, very leafy, deeply serrated lvs. fruiting head winged, faces smooth alien planted in WF mixes, common    
Poterium sanguisorba sanguisorba fewer, less serrated leaves, fruiting head scarcely winged, faces distinctly reticulate native on calcareous soils    
Rumex crispus crispus one large tubercle two small common    
Rumex crispus littoralis three large tubercles  like 'giant conglomeratus' marine sand and shingle    
Sagina apetala sepals erect or inclined, outer ones rather pointed common    
Sagina filiformis sepals sticking out at right angles (patent), outer ones rounded to hooded common    
Salix cinerea cinerea white felted underside, dull above commonest in E. England    
Salix cinerea oleifolia rusty felted underside, slightly glossy above a few planted in Essex    
Tragapogon pratensis minus yellow ligules shorter than phyllaries common    
Tragapogon pratensis pratensis  yellow ligules equal or longer than phyllaries v. rare alien    
Trifolium pratense pratense stem solid common    
Trifolium pratense sativum stem hollow cultivar    
Urtica dioica dioica stings - potassium rich soils common    
Urtica dioica galeopsifola more or less stingless - leaves long narrow-triangular wet woods and fens    
Veronica hederifolia hederifolia terminal tooth of leaflets wider than long, flowers white/blue, anthers blue, style >0.6mm Common arable, open sites    
Veronica hederifolia lucorum terminal tooth of leaflets narrower than long, flowers white/lilac, anthers lilac, style < 0.5mm Occasional gardens, shaded sites    
Veronic persica corrensiana the common form with smaller and  paler lower lip very common, flowers all year    
Veronic persica persica robust form with large bell-shaped all bluish-lilac flowers (see Essex Botany One) widespread gardens, arable. Flowers early April - end of May
Vicia sativa sativa leaflets, large oval, flowers larger than sagitalis cultivar uncommon (crop 'Tares')    
Vicia sativa segetalis leaflets narrow, wings reddish standard pink commonest    
Vicia sativa nigra leaflets dimorphic, upper leaflets narrower than lower,  wings and standard both red rare (native)