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Elms:                             ELMS ACCORDING TO MELVILLE ELMS ACCORDING TO JOBLING & MITCHELL ELMS ACCORDING TO STACE

                                                                          ELM HAIR PICTURESDNA & ELM ORIGINS

SYNOPSIS OF ELM TAXA FOUND IN SOUTH EAST ENGLAND

                                           As at October 2018 (KJA)

The British Elm taxa comprise a bewildering array of vegetative clones and hybrids. They have been partially revised by Jayne Armstrong and Peter Sell in Volume One of Flora of Great Britain & Ireland. 2018 by giving binomial names to 62 leaf shape forms they have recognized, mainly in East Anglia. The best published treatment we have for the moment otherwise is that of Stace 1997. See also Essex Elm, Hanson 1990. The U.minor silhouettes and shoots are rearranged from The British Elms, R. Melville. The New Naturalist. 1948. [green button above] [Note that in Stace U. carpinifolia (Smooth-leaved) has been lumped with U. diversifolia (East Anglian) and U. coritana (Coritanian) ]. Dutch Elm disease has killed most of the mature elms in S and C Britain making them unidentifiable to Ssp. They persist as suckers in hedgerows, but as soon as they attempt to grow into a tree the disease strikes. Sucker/juvenile leaves are much larger and often of a different shape from mature leaves. Pure glabra elms do not sucker.  As they spread by seed they are more variable as a result of crossing; minor and procera elms, however, sucker abundantly and largely spread vegetatively. See M. Coleman British Wildlife 13 p.390 for latest DNA data on clones adopted here and KJAs article on DNA & Elm origins (green button above). U. procera is now known to be a 1st Century Roman introduction. The minor and procera elms and their hybrids with glabra have minute red glandular hairs along the minor veins below [see figures green button above]. The procera elms have stiff white spiny as well as soft hairs making the upper surface scabrid.

Ulmus glabra

Wych Elm 

native

                           Ssp. glabra

 

southern in Britain

                           Ssp.montana

 

northern and western Britain

Ulmus procera

‘English’/Atinian Elm

1st century Roman introduction. S + C Britain, planted as hedges.

Ulmus minor  

Small-leaved Elm

Doubtfully native? polymorphic, N to C Eng. S Wales

      Suspected             carpinifolia

Smooth-leaved Elm

East Anglia

      cultivar                  diversifolia

East Anglian Elm

East Anglia

      clones:                  coritana

Coritanian Elm

East Anglia

                                  angustifolia

Goodyer's Elm

South Hampshire

      Known cultivar     'stricta'      

Cornish Elm

Cornwall and west Devon

      clones:                 'sarniensis'

Guernsey/Jersey Elm

native Guernsey, introduced on mainland

      [DNA evidence]   'plotii'       

Plot's Elm/Lock Elm

local central England

Ulmus laevis

European White Elm

introduced, scattered plantings

Ulmus thomasii

Rock Elm (from USA)

introduced, scattered plantings

 

Hybrids (intermediate shape and foliage)

 

 Ulmus glabra x Ulmus procera

native, very rare

 Ulmus glabra x Ulmus minor = U. x hollandica   

native, variable e.g. Lineage Elm, common

 Ulmus x hollandica 'hollandica'                   

Dutch Elm  - cultivar clone, widely planted.

 Ulmus x hollandica 'vegeta'                    

Huntingdon Elm, widely planted, cultivar clone

10 Ulmus glabra x Ulmus minor 'plotii'

native, common same area as U. 'plotii'

11 Ulmus procera x Ulmus minor

native, very rare, scattered

12 Ulmus procera x Ulmus 'plotii'

very rare, largely planted

13 Ulmus minor x Ulmus 'plotii'  

native, widespread in East Anglia

       ELM MAPS - after Melville 1948